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dojo/framework

Available middleware

Dojo provides a variety of optional middleware that widgets can include when needing to implement specific requirements.

cache

Provides a simple widget-scoped cache that can persist small amounts of data between widget renders.

API:

import cache from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/cache';
  • cache.get<T = any>(key: any): T | null
    • Retrieves the currently cached value for the specified key, or null on a cache miss.
  • cache.set<T = any>(key: any, value: T)
    • Stores the provided value in the cache against the specified key.
  • cache.clear()
    • Clears all values currently stored in the widget's local cache.

icache

Composes cache and invalidator middleware functionality to provide a cache that supports lazy value resolution and automatic widget invalidation once a value becomes available.

API:

import icache from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/icache';
  • icache.getOrSet<T = any>(key: any, value: any): T | undefined
    • Retrieves the cached value for the given key, if one exists, otherwise value is set. In both instances, undefined is returned if the cached value has not yet been resolved.
  • icache.get<T = any>(key: any): T | undefined
    • Retrieves the cached value for the given key, or undefined if either no value has been set, or if the value is still pending resolution.
  • icache.set(key: any, value: any)
    • Sets the provided value for the given key. If value is a function, it will be invoked in order to obtain the actual value to cache. If the function returns a promise, a 'pending' value will be cached until the final value is fully resolved. In all scenarios, once a value is available and has been stored in the cache, the widget will be marked as invalid so it can be re-rendered with the final value available.
  • clear()
    • Clears all values currently stored in the widget's local cache.

icache can be typed in two different ways. One approach uses generics to enable the return type to get specified at the call-site, and for getOrSet, the return type can get inferred from the value type. If the value for getOrSet is a function then the type will get inferred from the functions return type.

import { create, tsx } from '@dojo/framework/core/vdom';
import icache from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/icache';

const factory = create({ icache });

interface FetchResult {
    foo: string;
}

const MyIcacheWidget = factory(function MyIcacheWidget({ middleware: { icache } }) {
    // `results` will infer the type of the resolved promise, `FetchResult | undefined`
    const results = icache.getOrSet('key', async () => {
        const response = await fetch('url');
        const body: FetchResult = await response.json();
        return body;
    });

    return <div>{results}</div>;
});

However this approach doesn't provide any typing for the cache keys. The preferred way to type icache is to create a pre-typed middleware using createICacheMiddleware. This allows for passing an interface which will create an icache middleware typed specifically for the passed interface and provides type safety for the cache keys.

import { create, tsx } from '@dojo/framework/core/vdom';
import { createICacheMiddleware } from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/icache';

interface FetchResult {
    foo: string;
}

interface MyIcacheWidgetState {
    key: FetchResult;
}

const icache = createICacheMiddleware<MyIcacheWidgetState>();
const factory = create({ icache });

const MyIcacheWidget = factory(function MyIcacheWidget({ middleware: { icache } }) {
    // `results` will be typed to `FetchResult | undefined` based on the `MyIcacheWidgetState`
    const results = icache.getOrSet('key', async () => {
        const response = await fetch('url');
        const body: FetchResult = await response.json();
        return body;
    });

    return <div>{results}</div>;
});

theme

Allows widgets to theme their CSS classes when rendering, and also provides applications the ability to set themes and determine what the currently set theme is, if any.

Described in detail in the Dojo Styling and Theming reference guide.

API:

import theme from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/theme';
  • theme.classes<T extends ClassNames>(css: T): T
    • Widgets can pass in one or more of their CSS class names and will receive back updated names for the currently set theme that can be used when returning widget virtual nodes.
  • theme.set(css: Theme)
    • Allows applications to set a specific theme.
  • theme.get(): Theme | undefined
    • Returns the currently set theme, or undefined if no theme has been set. Typically used within an application's root widget.

i18n

Allows widgets to localize their message text when rendering, and also provides applications the ability to set a locale and determine what the currently set locale is, if any.

Described in detail in the Dojo Internationalization reference guide.

API:

import i18n from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/i18n';
  • i18n.localize<T extends Messages>(bundle: Bundle<T>, useDefaults = false): LocalizedMessages<T>
    • Returns a set of messages out of the specified bundle that are localized to the currently set locale. useDefaults controls whether messages from the default language are returned when corresponding values are not available for the current locale. Defaults to false in which case empty values are returned instead of messages in the default language.
  • i18n.set(localeData?: LocaleData)
    • Allows applications to set a specific locale.
  • i18n.get()
    • Returns the currently-set locale, or undefined if no theme has been set. Typically used within an application's root widget.

dimensions

Provides various size and position information about a widget's underlying nodes.

API:

import dimensions from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/dimensions';
  • dimensions.get(key: string | number): Readonly<DimensionResults>
    • Returns dimension information for the widget's specified DOM element, identified by the node's key property. If the node does not exist for the current widget (either has not yet been rendered or an invalid key was specified), all returned values are 0.

The returned DimensionResults contains the following properties, mapped from the specified DOM element's sources:

Property Source
client.left node.clientLeft
client.top node.clientTop
client.width node.clientWidth
client.height node.clientHeight
position.bottom node.getBoundingClientRect().bottom
position.left node.getBoundingClientRect().left
position.right node.getBoundingClientRect().right
position.top node.getBoundingClientRect().top
size.width node.getBoundingClientRect().width
size.height node.getBoundingClientRect().height
scroll.left node.scrollLeft
scroll.top node.scrollTop
scroll.height node.scrollHeight
scroll.width node.scrollWidth
offset.left node.offsetLeft
offset.top node.offsetTop
offset.width node.offsetWidth
offset.height node.offsetHeight

intersection

Provides information on whether a node is visible in a particular viewport using the Intersection Observer API.

As the Intersection Observer API is still an emerging web standard, the framework automatically ensures the underlying API is made available when running an application in a browser that does not yet support it. Note that as of the v6 release of Dojo Framework, the Intersection Observer API v2 is not yet supported.

API:

import intersection from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/intersection';
  • intersection.get(key: string | number, options: IntersectionGetOptions = {}): IntersectionResult
    • Returns intersection information for the widget's specified DOM element, identified by the node's key property. If the node does not exist for the current widget (either has not yet been rendered or an invalid key was specified), a result is returned indicating zero intersection.

The options argument allows for more control on how intersection gets calculated. The available fields are the same as those for the intersection observer API options.

IntersectionResult properties:

Property Type Description
intersectionRatio number The ratio of the element's bounding box that is intersecting the root element's viewport, from 0.0 to 1.0. By default the root element is considered the browser's viewport unless an element is specified via the options.root argument.
isIntersecting boolean A value of true indicates that the target element intersects with the root element's viewport (representing a transition into a state of intersection). A value of false indicates a transition from intersecting to not-intersecting.

resize

Allows a widget to respond to resize events of its DOM nodes using a ResizeObserver, and provides updated information on the node's new size when a resize occurs. Using this middleware is an effective way of creating applications that are responsive across a variety of viewport sizes.

As Resize Observer is still an emerging web standard, the framework automatically ensures the underlying API is made available when running an application in a browser that does not yet support it.

API:

import resize from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/resize';
  • resize.get(key: string | number): DOMRectReadOnly | null
    • Returns size information for the widget's specified DOM element, identified by the node's key property. If the node does not exist for the current widget (either has not yet been rendered or an invalid key was specified), null is returned. The returned object is a standard DOMRectReadOnly structure.

breakpoint

Allows widgets to determine a specific width breakpoint that is matched given the current width of one of their virtual nodes. This middleware is useful when creating widgets that can adapt to a variety of display widths, such as widgets that work at both mobile and desktop resolutions.

Composes the resize middleware to obtain the element width and to automatically invalidate the widget when its width is adjusted.

Note: If no custom width breakpoints are given, Dojo will default to the following set:

  • SM: 0
  • MD: 576
  • LG: 768
  • XL: 960

API:

import breakpoint from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/breakpoint';
interface Breakpoints {
    [index: string]: number;
}
  • breakpoint.get(key: string | number, breakpoints: Breakpoints = defaultBreakpoints)
    • Returns the breakpoint that the widget's specified output node (identified by its key) matches, given the node's current width. Custom breakpoints can be provided through the breakpoints argument. The return value is an object containing a breakpoint property, identifying the name of the breakpoint that was matched, and a contentRect property which contains the same value as calling resize.get(key) would return.

When using the same set of breakpoints in many locations, it is easier to define the set once rather than needing to pass it to every breakpoint.get() call. Applications can define their own custom breakpoint middleware with appropriate defaults via:

src/middleware/myCustomBreakpoint.ts

import { createBreakpointMiddleware } from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/breakpoint';

const myCustomBreakpoint = createBreakpointMiddleware({ Narrow: 0, Wide: 500 });

export default myCustomBreakpoint;

store

Provides widgets access to their externalized state when using the Dojo stores component.

Described in detail in the Dojo Stores reference guide.

API:

import store from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/store';
  • store.get<U = any>(path: Path<S, U>): U
    • Retrieves the value from the store at the specified path. The composing widget will also be invalidated and re-rendered when the associated value is changed.
  • store.path(path: any, ...segments: any): StatePaths<S>
    • Returns a store path beginning at a specified root with a number of additional segments.
  • store.at<U = any>(path: Path<S, U[]>, index: number)
    • Returns a store path that includes a numeric index when accessing stored array values.
  • store.executor<T extends Process<any, any>>(process: T): ReturnType<T>
    • Executes the given process within the composing widget's store and returns the result.

focus

Allows widgets to inspect and control focus amongst their resulting DOM output when combined with the VDOM focus primitives.

API:

import focus from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/focus';
  • focus.shouldFocus(): boolean
    • Returns true if focus should be specified within the current render cycle. Will only return true once, after which false is returned from future calls until focus.focus() is called again. This function is typically passed as the focus property to a specific VDOM node, allowing the widget to direct where focus should be applied.
  • focus.focus()
    • Can be called to indicate that the widget or one of its children requires focus in the next render cycle. This function is typically passed as the onfocus event handler to outputted VDOM nodes, allowing widgets to respond to user-driven focus change events.
  • focus.isFocused(key: string | number): boolean
    • Returns true if the widget's VDOM node identified by the specified key currently has focus. Returns false if the relevant VDOM node does not have focus, or does not exist for the current widget.

Focus delegation example

The following shows an example of delegating and controlling focus across a widget hierarchy and output VNodes:

src/widgets/FocusableWidget.tsx

import { create, tsx } from '@dojo/framework/core/vdom';
import focus from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/focus';
import icache from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/icache';

/*
    The input's `onfocus()` event handler is assigned to a method passed in
    from a parent widget, via the child's create().properties<MyPropertiesInterface>
    API, allowing user-driven focus changes to propagate back into the application.
*/
const childFactory = create({ focus }).properties<{ onfocus: () => void }>();

const FocusInputChild = childFactory(function FocusInputChild({ middleware: { focus }, properties }) {
    const { onfocus } = properties();
    return <input onfocus={onfocus} focus={focus.shouldFocus} />;
});

const factory = create({ focus, icache });

export default factory(function FocusableWidget({ middleware: { focus, icache } }) {
    const keyWithFocus = icache.get('key-with-focus') || 0;

    const childCount = 5;
    function focusPreviousChild() {
        let newKeyToFocus = (icache.get('key-with-focus') || 0) - 1;
        if (newKeyToFocus < 0) {
            newKeyToFocus = childCount - 1;
        }
        icache.set('key-with-focus', newKeyToFocus);
        focus.focus();
    }
    function focusNextChild() {
        let newKeyToFocus = (icache.get('key-with-focus') || 0) + 1;
        if (newKeyToFocus >= childCount) {
            newKeyToFocus = 0;
        }
        icache.set('key-with-focus', newKeyToFocus);
        focus.focus();
    }
    function focusChild(key: number) {
        icache.set('key-with-focus', key);
        focus.focus();
    }

    return (
        <div>
            <button onclick={focusPreviousChild}>Previous</button>
            <button onclick={focusNextChild}>Next</button>
            <FocusInputChild
                key="0"
                onfocus={() => focusChild(0)}
                focus={keyWithFocus == 0 ? focus.shouldFocus : undefined}
            />
            <FocusInputChild
                key="1"
                onfocus={() => focusChild(1)}
                focus={keyWithFocus == 1 ? focus.shouldFocus : undefined}
            />
            <FocusInputChild
                key="2"
                onfocus={() => focusChild(2)}
                focus={keyWithFocus == 2 ? focus.shouldFocus : undefined}
            />
            <FocusInputChild
                key="3"
                onfocus={() => focusChild(3)}
                focus={keyWithFocus == 3 ? focus.shouldFocus : undefined}
            />
            <FocusInputChild
                key="4"
                onfocus={() => focusChild(4)}
                focus={keyWithFocus == 4 ? focus.shouldFocus : undefined}
            />
        </div>
    );
});

injector

Allows retrieving injectors from the Dojo registry and assigning invalidation callback functions to then.

Note: Injectors and the registry are advanced concepts not typically required when writing Dojo applications. They are mainly used internally by the framework to implement more advanced user-facing functionality such as Dojo stores.

API:

import injector from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/injector';
  • injector.subscribe(label: RegistryLabel, callback: Function = invalidator)
    • Subscribes the given callback invalidation function against the specified registry label injector (if one exists). If a callback is not specified, the invalidator middleware is used by default so that the current widget will be marked as invalid and re-rendered when the injector makes its data available.
  • injector.get<T>(label: RegistryLabel): T | null
    • Retrieves the current injector associated with the given registry label, or null if no such injector exists.

block

Allows widgets to execute modules known as blocks within Node.js at build time. Typically used as part of build-time rendering.

Described in detail in the Building reference guide.

API:

import block from '@dojo/framework/core/middleware/block';
  • block<T extends (...args: any[]) => any>(module: T)
    • Executes the specified block module and returns its result.